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The earliest people of the area were Khoisan hunter-gatherers. They were largely replaced by Bantu tribes during Bantu migrations, though small numbers of Khoisan remain in parts of southern Angola to the present day.
The geographical area now designated as Angola first became the subject to incursions by Europeans in the late 15th century. In 1483 Portugal established a base at the river Congo, where the Kongo State, Ndongo and Lunda existed. The Kongo State stretched from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. In 1575 Portugal established a colony at Cabinda based on slave trade. The Portuguese gradually took control of the coastal strip throughout the sixteenth century by a series of treaties and wars forming the country of Angola. The Dutch occupied Luanda from 1641-1648, where they allied with local tribes to consolidate their colonial rule against the remaining Portuguese resistance.
In 1648, Portugal retook Luanda and initiated a process of reconquest of lost territories, which restored the pre-occupation possessions of Portugal by 1650. Treaties regulated relations with Congo in 1649 and Njinga's Kingdom of Matamba and Ndongo in 1656. The conquest of Pungo Andongo in 1671 was the last great Portuguese expansion, as attempts to invade Congo in 1670 and Matamba in 1681 failed.
Portugal expanded its territory behind the colony of Benguela in the eighteenth century, and began the attempt to occupy other regions in the mid-nineteenth century. The process resulted in few gains until the 1880s. Full Portuguese administrative control of the interior didn't occur until the beginning of the twentieth century. In 1951, the colony was restyled as an overseas province, also called Portuguese West Africa.
Portugal had a presence in Angola for nearly five hundred years, and the population's initial reaction to calls for independence was mixed.
After the overthrow of colonial Portugal's government by a socialist-inspired military coup, Angola's nationalist parties began to negotiate for independence in January 1975. An agreement was reached with the Portuguese government, with independence to be declared in November 1975.
Sources: Wikipedia and CIA World Factbook
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